Sunday, March 31, 2019

How Information Systems Can Influence Commerce Essay

How selective tuition placements feces Influence Commerce EssayIn this paper I pass on focus on how k right awayledge Systems peck influence for each(prenominal) champion of Porters quintuplet Forces of Competitive Position differently .Firstly I allow for provide a brief description of culture Systems, then I will pitying give at Porters 5 forces get and how Information Systems disregard influence each of those fin Forces of Competitive. The five militant forces a pilfers give away of Michael E. Porters work Competitive dodging Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors(1980). This model has now catch a tool which is commonly utilise for analysing a fraternitys structure and its strategic processes.An development organization (IS) includes reading engine room (IT) and peoples activities to assist in operational counselling and decision making. Information engineering refers to the relation between people processes, info and technology. This def inition, not only gift to the knowledge and communication technology (ICT) determinationd inwardly the organisation, but as well as to the way in which people interact with this technology to support the telephone circuit processes.Some writers distinguish between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but atomic number 18 not rigorously concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end physical exertion of information technology. Information systems ar withal different from business processes. Information systems assist to control the performance of business processes.As such(prenominal), information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and ar processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.An Information System consists of five basic resources, to witPeople, which consists of IT particular(prenominal)ists (such as a informationbase Administrator or Network Engineer) and end-users (such as Data Capture Clerks).Hardw atomic number 18, which consists of all the physical aspects of an information system, ranging from peripherals to computer parts and servers.Softw atomic number 18, which consists of System Software, Application Software and Utility Software. Data, which consists of all the knowledge and databases in the IS.Networks, which consists of communication media and network support.http// information system is made up of all the factors which collect, manipulate, and permeate data or information. Usually this includes hardware, software, people, communications facilities like telephone lines, and the data itself. This will entail inputting data, processing of data into information, s torage of data and information, and delivering outputs ,for graphic symbol model management reports.http// short information system Information system consists of five basic resources which are people, hardware, software, data and networks so as to facilitate planning, control, coordination, and decision making in an organization.According to Porter in that location are five agonistic forces that shape every single manufacture and grocery store. These five forces consist of, the threat of invigorated entrants, the negociate power of clients, the bargain power of suppliers, the threat of make out mathematical harvest-times or redevelopments, and the level of contest among recent competitors in spite of appearance the market place.Such forces help to carry out an analysis of the organisations real arrange ranging from the level of competition it faces, its profitability and attractiveness. We deal with these 5 forces on a daily basis. The relationship between the different competitive forces is illustrated below.http// bargain Power of suppliers -The border suppliers comprises all sources for inputs that are needed in install to provide goods or utilitys.http// are more likely to be in a good dicker position when, a few greathearted suppliers rather than a fragmented source of supply have verify of the market, for example, companies like Microsoft and Intel, which control the lastly-fragmented PC industry. In such instances suppliers of these major components are in a dominant position which can act price, bourns, and quantities of operate systems and CPUs. This will create a PC industry which is far less(prenominal) profitable than the suppliers of vital parts components like Microsoft and Intel, as in that respect are no accompaniment, or few for a component, for example, CPUs. Such customers are detached rendering their bargaining power weak. There are high be involved when electric switch from one supplier to another.Suppliers may integrate onward to find higher prices and margins. This threat change magnitudes when, buyers profitability increases as compared to than the supply industry. The buying industry can prevent suppliers from developing, such as, the reluctance in evaluate new harvests release. The buying industry has low obstacles for entry and frequently they are subjected to high pressure on suppliers margins in such conditions. Being associated with decently suppliers can initially diminish organisations strategic options.Bargaining Power of BuyersEqually, the bargaining power of buyers will dictate what level of pressure can be applied to margins and volumes. Customers are in a strong bargaining position when there is less of them or when buying in large volumes. When the merchandise is undifferentiated and can be substituted, buyers can switch to an alternative product easily and would not notice high court. When a buyer purchases in large volumes from a supplier, this accounts for a high amount in the suppliers revenue, boastful buyers an upper hand in such transactions. Buyers power also increase when the product does not have strategical importance for them. Porter argues that meshing technology provides buyers with easier access to information about products and suppliers, frankincense metierening buyers bargaining power. Due to the advent of IT potential buyers for products and services has increased , thus gnaw their individual power as individual buyers and increasing the power of the sellers. For example, auctioneer sites such as e-Bay encourages competition amongst buyers and therefore increase the price of goods and increases the sellers profits. terror of New EntrantsCompetition in an industry will increase, when it is easier for other companies to memorialize this industry. New entrants within the industry may change vital elements of the market environment, such as, market shares, prices, customer loyalty. This will pressurise existing players in this industry to react and to make adjustments.The threat of new entries will give away on the extent to which there are barriers to entry. Porter distinguishes six major barriers to entry.Barriers to entry include the following - Customers inciter loyalty ,buyers will incur high switching embodys , initially there are high investments and fixed apostrophizes , existing businesses have good customer relations, such as, from long-term service contracts ,Protected intellectual property like patents, licenses etc and Legislation and organisation action in place.Threat of SubstitutesThis arises when there are alternative products offered at lower prices serving the same dissolve. Products can be substituted wholly or partially. In such cases potentially this would attract a major property of market volume, therefore decreasing the potential sales for existing companies. This household is applicable to complementary products as well. The use of Information technology in businesses can bring about substitute products or services and also protect against them.The former occurs when different manufacturers fulfil exactly the same purpose and partial substitution of products occurs when only partially substitute by each other. There are also substitute sources, where the exactly the same product is sourced by two or more distributors.The threat of substitutes is also contumacious by factors which have an pertain on the threat of new entrants, such as, brand loyalty of customers, good customer relations, high switching hails which customers will incur, the current price of substitutes and current market trends.In the welkin of communication, the economy, functions within a broad range of telecommunications and transport ation technologies, therefore encourages substitute products and services which would be threats to businesses in many industries. For example on-line health and medical sites can be substitutes for contacting doctors.Competitive Rivalry between alert PlayersThis force deals with the level of competition in existing companies within the industry. If there is a high competitive pressure this will bring prices and margins down, thus affecting associations profits within the industry.Existing businesses are likely to face increased competition when there is a high amount of competitors with analogous size, power and having similar strategies. If there is little eminence between competitors and their products, this gives rise to a price competition. Market crop rates will be low, as a particular troupes growth is possible only at the detriment of a competitor, for example with airlines, heavy equipments.There are high barriers to exit, for example, pricy and highly specialized eq uipment.The 5-Forces model assists businesses to identify weakness, e.g. those areas where it is un brisk or weak. Helps to lose it what competitive challenges are impacting the business, from suppliers, customers, etc. Such analysis helps businesses to create systems to in effect respond to those challenges and constraints. Porters model is ground on the view that a somatic dodge should meet the opportunities and threats which organizations face in its external environment.The effect of Porters five forces varies among industries. However, whatever the industry type, the five forces influence profitability as they affect the prices, the costs, and the capital investment which are vital for survival and to compete within the industry. This model also helps when making strategic decisions and used by management to determine the industrys competitive structure.The Five Forces Model offers us a mapping as to how information resources can bring about competitive values. Porters Mo del, can assist Management in areas such as,(a)to envisage key sources of competition that they could encounter,(b)analyse the uses of information resources so as to improve their competitive position when facing threats from competitors and (c) to consider likely changes in competitive threats in the future. The 5 forces model offers a simple way to understand where the industry is moving to not just within. Over recent years payable to the rapid growth in Information Technology, the WEB has changed the nature of competition. Porter 2001 argues that the main impact of the Web is to increase competition, which would more likely decrease an organisations profit.It can be argued that some businesses are more prosperous than others because, they have twain give out resources that others do, or they can utilise commonly available resources more efficiently. This could be due to superior knowledge and information assets. Compared to their competitors they do better in areas such as, revenue growth, profitability, or productivity growth, thus increasing their fall market valuations.A companys performance in competitive markets is based on its competitive payoff, above average performance in the long term can arise by creating a realistic competitive advantage. Porters intuitive feeling on competitive advantage can be used to suppose at how Information Systems affect the organisations performance by changing the joining within the five forces model which forms its competitive environment.Porter argues that the main element to create an above average performance in the long term is to be able to maintain a competitive advantage. A competitive advantage is an advantage over competitors gained by offering consumers greater value, either by means of lower prices or by providing greater benefits and service that justifies higher prices. http// outline/competitive_advantage.htmWithout such advantage, a company can only reap the windfall, that is, make the largest profits it can whilst it is able to do so. He provides two basic types of competitive advantages, cost leadership and product specialism.Porter provides four generic business strategies that could be used so as to obtain a competitive advantage. The strategies relate to the extent to which the desktop of a business activities are narrow and broad and the extent to which a business seeks to differentiate its products.Organisations can follow four competitive strategies which are facilitated by the use of information systems in gaining a competitive advantage in their markets. These can mainly be achieved through the use of information technology and systems which include the following-Low-cost leadership This strategy design is to offer the final operational costs and lowest prices. The organisation aims to be count the lowest cost producer in its precise industry. A strategy of cost leadership requires more than just moving down the encyclopedism curv e, it must find and exploit every source to its potential cost advantage. Normally, cost leaders sell a basic product or commodity and put up in pursuing economies of scale and absolute cost advantages. The company must ensure compliance with the industrys norms, that is, the product or service offered must be seen as acceptable and comparable to its competitors. To be the lowest cost producer the company has to ensure that it makes effective use of technology in the production process.2. Product specialty, where an organisations aim is to differentiate with one ofa small number of market segments. The company must ensure that its competitors do not already have such products to satisfy the needs of those special customers. The product or service must be something that most of its customers see as important, and the company must position itself in a erratic position so as to meet those needs. Being placed in such privileged position the company will be rewarded and a premium is p aid for its uniqueness for the product or service .However the company must try to keep similar costs levels as its competitors so that the cost of uniqueness does not exceed the premium that the customer is prepared to pay. Unlike cost leadership, several firms can follow successful differentiation strategies in the same industrial sector, if the need arises.3. Focus on market respite This strategy does not select the desired features of aproducts or services within an industry but concentrates in a specific segment or group, within the whole of the targeted industry, that is, the company seeks to take advantage of a niche market. A company whose strategic advantage is based on having a focus strategy will select its niche and, once this is done it will draw its strategy to provide basically for the needs of that particular client group and will try to do better than its competitors. The organisation looks for competitive advantage in its own segment, though it does not need an overall competitive advantage. To be successful the company must exploit the under-performance of its competitors in that niche based either on cost or on differentiation.4. Strengthen customer and supplier intimacies Information systems facilitate directaccess from suppliers to information within the company. Increase switching costs and loyalty to the company, such as, IBM, and supplier interest strategy, use information systems so as, to improve their relationships and loyalty with customers and suppliers as they are both vital to organisations.Improving customer and supplier intimacy is an effective strategy in itself. By making transactions and conditions easier and more user well-disposed for both customers and suppliers, this will increase the intimacy of the firm vis a vis the customer and supplier. This will offer great incentive to the customer and supplier so as to carry on with in business with the firm.Customer intimacy is a marketing term, which d escribes the ability of a supplier to become authentic and known as the regular partner with its customer. http// the integrating of their operations, suppliers are not only being useful, but they reinforces the Customer and Supplier Intimacy, using information systems to create long-term relationship and create brand loyalty with customers and suppliers, including increasing switching costs.Also, there is fierce competition due to similar strategies which also encourages new entrants in the industry. However, the companies gain opportunities for brand mental synthesis and creating loyal customer base. For example, Thai Airways and Emirates increased customers switching costs and started the accrual of airline miles to increase the size of its loyal customers.Each strategy contains a different approach in creating and sustaining a competitive advantage. Therefore, each company has to make a choice abou t which strategy it will employ. However, a company would not normally be able to utilise differentiation and cost leadership strategies simultaneously. For example, it would be hard to be a cost leader while adopting a differentiation strategy as differentiation costs money. Though by only reducing costs may not adversely affect differentiation, a cost leader will eventually reach a stage when following a cost advantage will eventually result in sacrificing an aim.For Porter, technology is one of the principal driving forces of competition as it plays a meaningful employment in making structural changes to existing industries and also contributes to the creation of new industries. Technological change has had a positive impact on competition, creating new opportunities for competition and plays a vital role in the existing competitive strategy.He further argues that Information Technology and Information Systems are immanent as each task creates and uses information. He points o ut that modern information system technology plays a particularly crucial role, such as in scheduling, controlling, optimizing, measuring and co-ordinating different activities. He also noted that office or administrative technologies, which are often neglected or come under the term of information systems, also play an important role asDue to the advancement of technology, for many organisations there has been a significant changes in how the office functions, however not many are devoting self-coloured resources to it. ( Porter, 1985,)A vast amount of Research has been carried out to find out whether money invested by organisations in Information Technology, has helped organisations in achieving their objectives and goals. This type of inquiry is referred to as aligning IT with the embodied objectives.Chan Huff (1983) argue that organisations achieve IT junction with their corporate objectives through 3 levels of conjunctive, (1) Awareness (2) Integration and (3) alignment.In a latter study Chan (2001) describes the 3 levels of alignment as strategic alignment viewed as the degree of congruence between Information systems and strategic druthers or strategy.Strategic alignment has two major principles. Firstly, IT strategy should concentrate on external competitiveness instead of internal operations. Secondly, IT influences competitive advantages as it changes the direction or strength of one or more of the forces within Porters model. New technologies and their use change the competitive dynamics of industries which changes the buyers power, suppliers, new entrants, substitute products and existing rivals (Sasidharan et. al., 2006).IT must be aligned in line with the organisations corporate objectives. Most organisations rely heavily on IT to operate their business. Organisations must use IT to achieve their corporate objectives and especially to build, sustain, and extend competitive advantage Boar 1994. angiotensin-converting enzyme of the main criti cisms of the Five Forces Model is that it is rather static. Given that it describes the current severalise of an industry, therefore it would appear unsuitable for our dynamic, in an ever changing and dubious world.Some economists argue that government is the sixth force in Porters model. The strength of each of those forces serves a separate purpose within the industry structure, which is be by Porter as the underlying economic and technical characteristics of an industry.The information revolution has had an impact on managements view regarding the role of Information Systems in businesses. In the past it was considered to be only a part of the operating(a) of a business, whereas, now information is highly valued. Information is also seen as a depreciating asset which is to be considered as a resource that the organization could or should use in its business. ( Robson, 1997)Worldwide the concept of doing businesses has undergone major changes, brought about by the use of Intern et , for example ,businesses can now attract a significant percentage of potential buyers nationally and globally through social networks websites like Facebook. . By creating a digital market the Internet has linked buyers and sellers (Laudon Laudon, 2005).

Dato Sri Najib Razak Upon Taking Media Essay

Dato Sri Najib Razak Upon victorious Media Essay1 Malaysia innovation was unveiled by the incumbent gush Minister, DatoSri Najib Razak upon taking office on 3rd April 2009. The goals to present this indemnity is to colligate the nation, to form the equity in the economic dimension, nurture the social viscidness and excessively groom sure the heap die in capital of New Hampshire and peace between varied races (1 , 2009). According to the Malaysias Prime Minister Najib Tun Abdul Razak, Satu Malaysia manner the mutual respect between the incompatible races in Malaysia and also to kick in to the success of vision 2020.According to the re pursuit done by the Merdeka warmness for Opinion Research, conducted from 19 June 2012 until the 1st of July, there atomic number 18 over 75% of Malaysian aw atomic number 18 to this policy with 23% of people agree that it service to countenance the unity among races and 18% of people think one and only(a) Malaysia plan is nearly the equitable among the different races in nation. Besides, this survey shows that 46% respondents concur the superstar Malaysia policy would be able to achieve the objectives, the rest are non agree with it, which close there are over 50% of respondent are not hitherto aware and chthonicstand close to the policy. The survey proved the majority of respondent felt that the regimen has successfully creating awareness on the Satu Malaysia apprehension among the nation, but this concept is not altogether accepted by all the Malaysians.As we k this instant, mainstream media apply by government to create awareness on the matchless(prenominal) Malaysia concept, and used on enhance the acceptance of the concept by the citizen of Malaysia. Mainstream media plays an important role to excrete information, cut across intelligence and educate the audience about government policies, especially in the pluralism society the wishs of Malaysia. Mainstream media do not di fferentiate between our citizens on the basis of their background or ethnic origin, the media closelyly deliver the nitty-gritty in the different languages akin Bahasa Malaysia, Chinese, Tamil and English. For example, there are different conduct in mainstream TV channels to broadcast the news show programs with different languages, even the One Malaysia programs also have different version of languages. This is to make sure all the citizens can receive the information that they can comfortably to understand.The mainstream media in Malaysia same RTM, Media Prima and Bernama are controlled by government, and the alternative media akin MalaysiaKini and The Insider are the popular news site to hatch the unvarnished news and casing in Malaysia. Athough the alternative media occupy the small section of media in Malaysia, it still have a lots of audience an loseer canvas to the mainstream media.Mainstream media used to enhance the One Malaysia concept, for example the newspap er as tools to drop a line Malaysian government propaganda. Every day, there are many newspapers let go ofed mainly in Bahasa Malaysia, Chinese, Tamil and English, most of them are government-controlled. Mainstream newspaper report on every stunts of the One Malaysia policy and emphasis only on the benefit of the concept and projects, it never reveal or focus on the ban side of the policy. For example One Malaysia gunstock, one of the project by KARISMA. When the project was finally launched, the mainstream newspaper mostly report on how the 1M store can benefit to citizen and set it as headline or give the news a wide space in layout, but when the unfavorable judgment arise because of the low quality of One Malaysias products, newspaper only publish out the news with small space or never appear. It shows the mainstream media are partial and only shows what they want to show and filtered the important information pilotly publish out.Another example like RTM, local television channels licensed to broadcast in Malaysia, it used by government to promote the policy too. TV station entrust broadcast the motion picture clips about One Malaysia concept, for example the one Malaysias advertisement. For every important day like Merdekas Day, TV give Keep showing the One Malaysia Merdeka advertisement and Satu Malaysia ascendant song to make a strong impressive on the audience. Besides, mainstream media forget report about the major event of 1 Malaysia that happen in town, for example the Sitiawans Chinese New year Open House. This CNY event was live broadcasted through RTM1, and it successfully gets a wide coverage in Malaysia and even the reporter of CCTV from China at hunt downed to make a live report. This event is for the CNY celebration and help to foster unity among the various races in Malaysia, by showing this event on TV, it help to promote the One Malaysia concept and also to gain support from the chinese community, so that the One Malaysia conce pt can be widely accepted in nation.Nowadays, mainstream media especially unthaw to air TV channels and radio station now losing a large numbers of audiences and readers, the credibility of mainstream media was suspected. plurality will not totally accept the messages of mainstream media before verify the f portrayals through online. Most Malaysians are now make out more polite and wiser to distinguish the f practices, people start to search information through online, and they verify and confirm the events before accepting the fairness. One of the hot cover songics was the censored news of Bersih 3.0 on 28th April 2012. The British broadcast Corporation (BBC) and ASTRO (Malaysian pay TV station) broadcasted the cardinal different version of news, the BBCs original broadcast been censored and the inter heap of the respondent about Bersih 3.0 filtered by Astro. This video clip will not appear on the mainstream media channels like RTM1. Astro is not government-owned media, but it is indirectly control by the government. This shows that most of the media in Malaysia have no freedom, the reporting is not true and be sloped towards one side which is the supreme group.In my own opinion, although the mainstream media occupy most of the media space in Malaysia, it is not partful decent to change people mind and find out on the behavior of citizens, this probably because of the distortion of truth and biasness of mainstream media. Nowadays, more and more people start to voice out and communicate themselves in cyberspace. It shows the influential power of social networking sites. The example of social networking sites like facebook, blog, twitter and YouTube are now becoming the source to get news and information, especially the unvarnished news. Most people said that the mainstream media tell lies and partial, they instead believe the alternative media instead of prejudice reporting.According to the limited personal effects theory by Lazarsfeld, media a re not powerful overflowing to watch on individuals which is also known as limited effect perspective. He also claims that the heavy media users were the person whose advice was being held by others. gum olibanum, the heavy media users will become the gate limiters and opinion leaders. Opinion leaders used to advice the followers and this is afterward known as the two step flow.The Prime Minister in Malaysia, Dato Sri Najib Razak as the opinion leader and also a heavy media user, he created a website called 1Malaysia with a tagline The Personal Website of DatoSri Najib Razak to provide a place for feed discussion and also to encourage the acceptance of One Malaysia concept by the citizens of Malaysia. The website now become one of the mainstream media in Malaysia, it always shows on the top of Google page for the keywords One Malaysia. He understands the influential power of internet, and also the slight popular of mainstream media, he started to take part in social networkin g sites like Twitter, Facebook and blog, all of these sites have gathered over millions of followers. Our Prime Minister act as the opinion leader not only for the real feel but also in the cyberspace, this is one of the ways he used to promote the One Malaysia concept and influence his followers. This is known as two step flow. The message about One Malaysia concept share from mainstream media in Malaysia can easily reach to audience but this does not mean the mainstream media can influence people to accept the policy, the most influential things is the persuasion of opinion leader instead of mainstream media . Another example like the tyro or commenter who bombard the biasness of mainstream media will be viewed as the nation hero sandwich and opinion leader, for example Namwee. He has a huge of followers on facebook, he act as the opinion leader to critic the biasness of media and also the BN politicians. His opinion could influence his followers because people craving of hear ing the effective truth about the government leaders and policies.According to Lazarsfeld, media rarely had power to change people mind because it is almost always mediated by the individual differences. Individual influences in psychological make ups cause media influence to vary from person to person. Everyone has different ideas, mainstream media only can deliver the messages or information of One Malaysia concept to the citizens but not powerful enough to influence people decision, and make people accept to the concept. This is because audiences have the even up to choose what to unmasking, this is known as discriminating process.The selective process, information that is inconsistent with a person already held attitudes will create psychological botheration or cognitive dissonance. People generally work to keep their fellowship of themselves and their knowledge of the world somewhat consistent via selective processes. People escape to avoid the cognitive dissonance after made a decision. Thus people will avoid the facts that can prove the decision was wrong, so the more potential dissonance, the more we tend to avoid. People will self-discipline and pretend that they never seen the evidence. Because of people have right to choose what to ruin in mainstream medias messages, the One Malaysia concept cannot be completely accepted by the citizens. The mainstream media in Malaysia keep promoting the concept, but this policy might not the noble-minded policy to some of the citizens, they can choose to pass up the message or choose to remember some part of the concept they like. In the selective process, there are three form of selectivity, for example the selective exposure, selective retention and also the selective retention.Selective exposure, people tend to expose themselves to information that same to their preexisting attitudes and belief. For example, the mainstream TV station RTM1 broadcast the One Malaysia program, audiences can choose not t o watch the program and switch to other channels if they dont agree with the concept or not interested to the information. This is because they result to their subconscious and dont want to change the pre-existing belief.Selective retention, people tend to remember the best and interested messages that are most meaningful to them. For example, the mainstream media keep showing the benefit of One Malaysias projects, the IPT students only choose to remember the stunts of One Malaysia Siswa Card (KADS1M), because this project is benefit to them and help them to reduce the daily comprise of living, they only pay attention and accept the message that can perform their demands.Selective perception, people will change the meaning of messages so that they become consistent with pre-existing attitudes and belief. For example, When media shows the advertisement of 1Malaysia store and promote the products, audience will think purchasing 1Mproduct is a stupid action because in their pre-exi sting belief One Malaysia products are low quality and they never allot to purchase those products. These three forms of selectivity show media cannot control how audience think, how audience act and even accept to the One Malaysia concept.The ways the mainstream media are used to promote the acceptance of the One Malaysia concept successfully creating awareness among the Malaysian, but this does not mean that people are completely pack the concept and support the idea of the policy. As we all know, the mainstream media actually under controlled by the dominant group, the government and The Barisan National. No one dare to eject or deny the government policy, they remain curb since they have no freedom to enunciate out the idea, and they scare to bear the consequences of against government so they choose to admit it, for example the preventive detention law. So people remain silence because they think their views are in minority but in fact there is no one to speak out their opi nion. According to the helical of silence theory by Neumann (1974), a people view control the public scene and others disappeared from the public awareness as it adherents became silent. People fear of being isolation and know what actions and behaviors should take to avoid their likelihood of being socially isolated. For example, some people tend to keep their negative opinion toward the government policy to themselves when they think they are in the minority. This scene is called Spiral of Silence.In conclusion, mainstream media in Malaysia are not powerful enough to change people mind, but it do have certain influence. Therefore, under the assumption of the two step flow process, selective process, and the Spiral of Silence theory, the messages of the mainstream media would not be able to reach the citizen directly. Thus, the effect of the mainstream media in Malaysia is considered as limited effect. In my opinion, the government has successfully creating awareness on the poli cy among the citizens of Malaysia through the mainstream media, but not the acceptance of the concept. The completely acceptance of the concept among nation might happen if there is no partial and biased information from the mainstream media, if media are more control by the dominant group, the less trust of Malaysias citizens can give to the mainstream media.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

SWOT Analysis of Tesla

SWOT Analysis of TeslaTesla, Inc. is an American come with that specializes in galvanizing automobiles, energy storage, and solar panel manufacturing. Founded in 2003, Tesla has recently discontinue m whatever industries, virtually notably the auto industry. Teslas steering on electric power vehicles, lithium-ion battery, and energy storage set itself apart from their competitors Tesla has grow its focus from simply building the best electric railway car to paving the way for autonomous vehicles, solar power, and so much to a greater extent (Houser, 2017). This demo of leadership and shared knowledge expresses their overall effort to accelerate the sexual climax of sustainable transport (Musk, 2013). slice it isnt common for a company to foretaste their competitors copy their products, this is exactly what CEO, Elon Musk, hopes for. While Tesla is a business, it is more interested in the fundamental good of getting the auto industry as a whole to move towards sustainable t ransport faster the first tint in doing so would be to get their competitors to fol piteous suit. As delineate in the text, a SWOT analysis is a technique by means of and through which managers create a quick overview of a companys strategic situation (Pearce, 2015). Tesla, Inc., handle any company, has strengths, weaknesses, banes, and opportunities that are eccentric to their company specifically.(S)trengthsThe strengths of a company are focused on proficiency, skill, and the advantages of an organization. Tesla, Inc. stands out against competitors due to their unique position in the market. Tesla has created a market for cars that are twain luxuriant and long range electric. By doing so, they have set themselves apart from their competitors who all offer luxury gas vehicles or less expensive electric vehicles, but not both. Tesla, Inc. is in equal manner reputable for its in high spirits up rate of innovation, especially in introducing the worlds first fully electric sports car. unconnected from its range of vehicles, Tesla also makes solar energy and energy storage systems. any three of their actual product lines are highly innovative and equipped with the best, most advanced technologies. Prior to Tesla, consumers often had to choose a car between a car that would fit their luxurious desires or a car that didnt need to be fueled by high gas termss and would contribute towards a healthy and stable environment. In conjunctive with their innovation, Tesla doesnt use the traditional method of car deceiveing through dealerships Instead, they sell their own cars through Tesla-branded stores. Through this approach, Tesla is able to go directly to the customer. However, another(prenominal) valid reason for Tesla to not follow the traditional strategy to interchange its cars is because Tesla is not the typical car Unlike gas-run vehicles, Teslas cars use a divergent business model that does not require services such as tune-ups and oil chang es. In addition, Tesla is better off selling themselves rather than through a dealership because of the conflict of interest in being various(a) with gas-powered vehicles this poorly aligns with their image and does not make the dealership approach a good advocate for their all electric brand image. While it is distinguished to recognize a companys strengths, it is also important to distinguish their weaknesses. There is no such thing as a company that only has strengths, the reason for that is because no company has unlimited resources. Companies and businesses have a minimal amount of resources and have to use their limited amount to focus and support their strengths.(W)eaknessesWeaknesses are areas that a company can improve in they are the factors that pr even outt an organization from reaching its full effectiveness. While most are highly supportive and encouraging of Tesla and their committee, many of their supporters cant represent and purchase the car themselves due to the high cost of the car. Teslas current models readily useable for sale, nonplus S and exercise X, are quite an costly with them both having a starting price tag of close to $80,000. such(prenominal) a high cost makes them not affordable to be purchased among the middle class, which significantly decreases the size of their potential interview. Tesla fully develops the vehicles as good as their sub-assemblies themselves, which results in a high cost of fruit per vehicle. With that said, it would be difficult for Tesla to make their cars more affordable whilst making a profit. The baby-sit 3, Teslas more affordable model, begins at a cost of $35,000 in the first place incentives which is an extreme price slash in comparison to their other models. While the Model 3 may be well priced for customers, it doesnt see to be priced to a point where Tesla impart make much profit, if any at all. It seems that Model 3 is a big risk in terms of financial gain because in articulate fo r Tesla to break even on the vehicle, UBS believes that customers must purchase nearly $6,000 in additional options (Stumpf, 2017). However, the production of Model 3 may provide the company to seek opportunities they could not before.(O)pportunitiesOpportunities are external factors that may contribute to the organization while support the strengths. Model 3 is Teslas newest rick which is a smaller, more affordable pas seul of Model S with less range, power, and fewer features. The $35,000 model is currently available to be reserved. This is a huge opportunity for Tesla to expand the size of their audience market, primarily because one of the main disadvantages previously was that the cost was too high for the middle class to afford. Upon reserving the model, there is a twelve to eighteen month waiting period to receive the car. According to an update from Tesla, about 373,000 commonwealth want to buy the Model 3 (Shen, 2017). With hundreds of thousands of people waiting for th eir Model 3, there is more demand than there is supply, which explains the waiting period. According to the Bloomberg Model 3 tracker Tesla has manufactured 7,618 Model 3s so far, and is now building near 1,052 a week (Randall, 2018). This opportunity of making models for the middle class also creates, and is proven in the current evidence, an increase the ongoing demand. A one-third opportunity that Tesla is taking the lead in is autonomous capricious. Autonomous driving is a big opportunity for Tesla to break through that has the potential to in all change everything about the future of transportation. Although it is more in the test stagecoach at the moment, the possibilities are huge and will disrupt and cause many different industries to be altered once it is under effect. (T)hreatsThreats include potential issues and risks that may be caused by external factors. A major threat that Tesla, Inc. faces is competition from both luxurious and environmentally hail-fellow car b rands this will be even more problematic when their competitors, who havent already, release their own and possibly more advanced electric vehicles. Because the cost of Teslas current makes and models are so pricey, they currently face the threat of brands like Ford and Nissan. Ford and Nissan, two brands that also offer electric, environmentally friendly vehicles, do so at a more affordable price of approximately $30,000. Future competition is also likely by companies like Toyota who plans to offer more than ten purely electric vehicle models in its lineup by early 2020. Another possible threat to Tesla is their experiment with price skimming. Price skimming is a product pricing strategy by which a firm charges the highest initial price that customers will pay. Then, as the demand of the first customers are satisfied, the firm lowers the price to attract another, more price-sensitive segment. This is exactly what Tesla is doing with their Model 3, which shows to have a high demand, but low profit. It is uncertain how they will be financially affected, but current issue shows a loss of profit.ConclusionThe main message of Tesla, Inc.s mission is to accelerate the advent of sustainable transport by bringing oblige mass market electric cars to market as soon as possible (Musk, 2013). From vehicles, to solar energy, to energy storage systems, all of Teslas products are link to sustainability To be sustainable is what the company was built around in order to reach their end goals. The conducted SWOT analysis for Tesla, Inc. provides the opportunity to better construe the environment in which they operate it ultimately highlights important factors which affect both its internal and external environment. In the future, it is expected that there will be major advancements made in the fields that Tesla, Inc. are involved in. Such progress will change the world for the better, but to do that requires every individual within the world to willingly adapt.ReferencesHo user, K.(2017, February 26). 7 Ways Tesla Is ever-changing Everything. Retrieved February17, 2018, fromhttps//, E. (2013, November 19). The Mission of Tesla. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from https//, J.A., & Robinson, R. B. (2015).Strategic management planning for domestic & spherical competition. NewYork McGraw-Hill.Randall, T., & Halford,D. (2018, February 14). Tesla Model 3 production tracker. Retrieved February 19, 2018, from https// 16, 2018, from https// ReasonsWhy Tesla Insists on Selling its Own Cars. (2016, January 19). RetrievedFebruary 19, 2018, fromhttp//, L. (2017, July 3).Everything You Need to feel About Teslas Cheapest Car Ever. Retrieved February 19, 2018, from http//, R. (2017, May 21).Researchers Estimate Break-Even On Tesla Model 3 at $41,000. Retrieved February 19, 2018, from http//

Friday, March 29, 2019

Impact of FDI on the growth rates in agriculture in India

Impact of FDI on the get away rate in land in IndiaAbstract opposed aspire enthronement (FDI) is taken as one of the key divisor of rapid stinting take and proceeds. FDI, it is believed to make up domestic enthronisation, tender-hearted ceiling, and alters technology. It is associated qualities which ca determinations the faster frugal exploitation in the soldiery countries. India, for instance was one of the poorest economies later the post independence era, to a greater extent over to that extent achieved scotchal harvest-time with substantial descend of FDI inflows and become one of the express emerging economies in the world in a half cytosine and witnessed unprecedented aims of economic expansion, along with countries like China, Russia, Mexico and Brazil.This paper evaluates the furbish up of FDI in Indias economic harvest employing big economic time serial publication information from 2000-2010 on the harvest-home of Agricultural, Manufac turing and Service heavenss of the Indian economy as healthful as the economy as a unit of measurement. This submit uses the endogenous suppuration manakin to explore the character reference of FDI in economic leave behind. The subroutine of FDI in economic exploitation is not statistic eachy signifi placet however, the interaction amid FDI and kind-hearted beings chapiter, export and domestic expectant is of ut close importance.This hold supports the findings of Laura Alfaro (2003) in the work of which shows that the benefits of FDI shift broadly across sectors by examining the effect of irrelevant direct enthronization on harvest-tide in the primary, manufacturing, and advantages sectors. accusativeThe objective of this knowledge is to comp ar the release in gain rate among the Agricultural, Manufacturing and Service Sectors of the Indian frugality due to the uneven flow of all overseas aim coronation in these sectors. The look work as advanta geously as aims at analysing the evolution of Indian economy from 2000 to 2010 based the inflows of Foreign lineal enthronization and the ciphers such as regime Spending, puffiness, gross domestic product Per capita, Trade receptiveness and piece Capital Formation rivaling it.IntroductionThe United Nations 1999 instauration enthronement Report defines FDI as an investment involving a long term kin and echoing a lasting disport and control of a resident entity in one economy ( opposed direct investor or pargonnt go-ahead) in an enterprise resident in an economy opposite than that of the outside direct investor ( FDI enterprise, run enterprise or unlike affiliate).In the recent years, Foreign look at investing (FDI) policies shit become one of the central economic policies for the development countries, learned from the experiences of newly industrialised countries (NICs) like South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan which promoted FDI as the catalyst of rap id economic harvesting in the early stages of their economic development. Empirical studies on the impact of FDI on economic harvest have shown supportive impact in the legion countries. Hence, it has become an area of great interest with empirical determinants of policy implications for deepend FDI inflows and the mechanism by means of which it facilitates development and structural stir in recipient countries.The usage of FDI in economic festering in the ontogenesis countries is that FDI generate to a greater extent benefits to the recipient countries preferably than just full filling the short-term neat deficiency problems. enrapture of technologies and its swash over effect to the topical anesthetic firms will make the topical anesthetic firms much competitive and mettlesome standards which is necessary to compete with the foreign products. An some separate, give out over effect of MNEs is that MNEs may leave teaching and labour management which may make the m avail adapted to the economy in general. The training to local anesthetic suppliers by MNEs may maturation the high standard achievement and managerial standards.The kindred between foreign direct investment and economic emergence is one of the come up analyze subjects in the field of development economics. Especially, aft(prenominal) the advent of endogenous increase model (Borenzteins, et al, 1995, Balasubramanyam, et al, 1996) make this relationship more vital for long run economic yield. The research interest in this field has make upd after 1990s wave of globalisation and massively maturation FDI across the globe and economic offset of FDI receiving countries. consort to UNCTAD (2009) foreign direct investment has potential drop drop to generate booking, raise productivity, transfer of training skills and technology, enhance export and continue to the long term economic development of the worlds developing countries. FDI is as well the largest source of exte rnal financing for developing countries.Foreign Direct Investment is directly linked to the international backup of the land which provides the opport unities to mingle the local economy with the world economy. Enormous literatures on significance of FDI has shown commanding role in the economic growth (Borenztein, et al 1995, De Mello, 1996 and Balasubramanyam, 1996). However, on that point are controversies as some academics argue that the relationship between FDI and growth is non-li or so. This is a complex issue whether FDI cause growth or growth causes the development of FDI. Multinational companies go across the world with the objectives maximizing profits. Hence, countries are providing most suitable investment surroundings to MNEs to attract the investment. Policy reforms, political stability, domestic growths, increased domestic entrepreneurial skills might cause to grow the FDI in innkeeper countries.Inflows of FDI can be all of import(p) vehicle for technolog ical change and human superior. Blomstrom et al (1994, 1996) emphasized FDI that induced human capital augmentation and economic growth by the help of the technology transfer, accumulation of human capital and knowledge spill over in the FDI receiving countries.There are devil ways to deliver goods and services to foreign merchandises international production and grapple. This mover that there should be some interrelationship between the deuce. This is confirmed by the collateral correlation between world Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and world exports. Thus, economic growth and disdain and investments are interconnected.Foreign Direct Investment and Economic GrowthForeign Direct Investment plays important role in economic growth as FDI not sole(prenominal) increase the capital decline in the country but also work ons the technology which increases the productivity of the resources. The massive increase in FDI in India from 1990 to 2010 raises important queries about the possible impact of FDI in economic growth. The studies of Borenzstein et al. (1995) and Balasubramaniyam, et al. (1996) demonstrate that FDI induces human capital and transfer technologies and this spillover effect of knowledge come before the economic growth in the host countries. They argue that the effect of FDI re primary(prenominal)s permanent in the host country because of the development in the infrastructures of the host country. Therefore, there represent the long rung relationship between direct of gross domestic product and foreign capital seam.Depicted below are the trends in FDI, gross domestic product and Inflation in the post liberalisation accomplishment in India. reference point http// http// point of reference http// cumulative effect of FDI,gross domestic product and Inflation factors determine the growth of an economy.The sectoral insularism of flow of FDI in India is a s followsSource altered from the entropy disposed(p) on http// it is clear that the major overlap of FDI flows into the Service Sector.The share of each of the sectors in GDP is as belowSource Adapted from the info given on http// is clear from the above two depictions that the service sector has majority share in GDP as well as FDI, followed by Manufacturing and then Agriculture.The research aims at comparing the difference in growth rates of these sectors due to the flow of FDI.Current republic of the literature related to the proposed topicEconomic policymakers in most countries go out of their way to attract foreign direct investment (FDI). A high level of FDI inflows is an affirmation of the economic policies that the policymakers have been implementing as well as a stamp of approval of the future economic health of that particular country. There is clearly an intense global competition for FDI. India, for its part, has solidification up the India Brand Equity Foundation to try and attract that snarled FDI dollar.According to UNCTAD (2010), India has emerged as the second most attractive destination for FDI after China and ahead of the US, Russia and Brazil.While there is an intense global extend for FDI, how important is FDI to a countrys economic growth? It is certainly a difficult ask to separate and quantify the complex package of resources that FDI confer to the host country. There have been a number of macro studies attempting to determine the tie-in between FDI and growth.The massive literature on role of FDI on economic growth has shown various types of affects (positive, negative or insignificant) of FDI in various countries. This study aims to explore the impact of FDI on the growth rates of sectors in Indian economy.Berry and Kearney(2006) the most common character through with(predicate) which spillover are understan d to operate include technology transfer, demonstration effects (through management skills and training to export) and greater competition(leading to productive efficiency). A significant presence of MNEs can bring about fundamental changes in industrial structure, particularly for smaller and middling sized countries. If foreign MNEs operate in sectors that are imperfectly agree with those dominated by indigenous firms, FDI can help create a better diversified economy.Chung et al (2003) Technology transfer occurs when there is relate between foreign and local firms. Japanese auto transplants increased production plow in North American significantly influenced the industrys productivity growth during this period (1982-1991).Caves (1974) argued that FDI also improves the allocative and technical efficiency through competitive pressure. Foreign entrants break down entry barriers, compete for factor inputs and customers and reduce the market power of entrenched firms.Zhang et al ( 2004) studied on impact of MNEs expression through FDI on international avocation and vice versa. They use husbandman causality co consolidation approach to observe the direction of FDI and betray gene gene linkage of Chinese economy in 1980- 2003 period. They comprise that more imports lead higher(prenominal) level of FDI, more FDI leads to more exports and more exports FDI. This virtuous act reflects Chinas open door policy.Chakraborty and Basu (2002) study showed two-way link between foreign direct investment and growth for India using structural co integration model with victor error correction mechanism. They found strong tell of GDP Granger causing FDI flows for India, there was not significant role in the short run adjustment process of GDP. Short-run increase in FDI flows for India is labor displacing in nature. The technology transfer brought in by FDI causes an excess supply of labour creating downward pressure on unit labor terms.Borenzstein et al (1995) introduc ed a new model showing the impact of FDI in economic growth using an endogenous model growth model. They canvass FDI flows from industrialized countries to 69 developing countries during 1970-1989. They argued that due to the direct FDI there is increase in capital accumulation and in host countries and transfer of technology lead increases productivity which causes the economic growth of the host countries. Their result showed that FDI is an important vehicle of technology transfer, contributing more economic growth than domestic investment where they make a case of minimum sceptre stock of human capital necessary to absorb foreign technologies and linkage between FDI and human capital and domestic investment are crucial to achieve the economic growth. Other subsequent studies by Subramanyam et al., (1996) within the growth theory frame work canvas the role of FDI in growth process in the context of 46 developing countries with different swap policy regimes. From their cross-se ctional panel data analysis, they found that countries that pursue all outwardly oriented trade policies are strongly benefited from FDI than those countries adopting an inward oriented policy.De Mello (1996) based on neoclassical approach argue that FDI affects only level of income and leaves long run growth unchanged. They argue that technological progression and other external factors main source of economic growth. Their argument is that long-run growth arises because of technological progress and population growths both were exogenous. Hence, according to neoclassical models of economic growth, FDI will only be growth advancing if it affects technology positively and permanently.Endogenous growth theorists believe that economic growth is generated from within a system as a direct result of internal process. Aghoin and Howitt(1998) the sweetening of nations human capital by investing more on human capital formation would lead to faster economic growth. The recent endogenous mod els show that FDI can affect growth endogenously growth models if it generates increasing returns in production via externalities and spillover effects Deme and Graddy (2006). In these models, FDI is thinked to be an important source of human capital and technological diffusion.According to Romers (1990) endogenous growth model growth is driven by technological change from intentional investment made by profit maximizing firms. He argues that stock of human capital determines the rate of growth. In his control, there is increasing returns scale (IRS) in compound level where as constant returns to scale (CRS) in the firm level and firms dont take account of spillover effect of externalities but economy as a whole experiences the increasing returns to scale which causes the endogenous growth. Endogenous growth theoreticians FDI and trade stimulate the technological diffusion and contribute economic growth.Barell and Pain (1996) studied the econometric model of foreign direct invest ment and examined the extent to which the model explain the level of outward direct investment by U.S companies over last two decades. Their analysis show that market size and factor cost, both labor and capital are important factors in the investment decision because MNEs are trying to maximize the value of the firm by allocating the resources in right place.Feder et al. (1983) analyzed export-led economic growth hypothesis. They argued that exports increase factor productivity because of the better utilization of resources and economies of scale. Some economists argue that open trade policies foster FDI because of the conducive economic climate for the MNEs. In this regard, Rodrizguez and Rodrik (1999) presented a atheistical view by linking between opentrade policies and economic growth. They argue that previous studies didnt consider the institutional differences among countries in an upwardly biased estimate of trade and other policy restrictions. Their analysis showed that th e relationship between average tariff rates and economic growth is only slightly negative and nowhere near statistical significance.The issue whether FDI and trade trigger economic growth or economic development attracts FDI and trade is unsolved (Makki and Samwaru, 2004) since past studies were one sided i.e. analyzed the impact of FDI and trade on economic growth (Borensztein et al, 1995 and Balasubramanyam et al, 1996) or analyzed the effect of economic growth on FDI (Barrel et al, 1996).The recent study on role of FDI in economic by Kim and Hwang (2000) focused on spillover effects in different six sub sectors. They examine the effects by using random effects model employing the annual data for the period of 1970. They find that FDI played a negligible role through out Koreas economic development. Despite the quantitative insignificance of FDI, they accepted the qualitative role of FDI on Korean economy by knowledge spillover from foreign firms.Dhakal et al. (2007) conducted a r esearch on relationship between FDI and economic growth using farmer causality test for 9 Asiatic countries where they find there is no direct causal relationship in two countries, causality ran from growth to FDI in 5 countries including South Korea and causality ran from both sides in two countries.Kim and Seo (2003) analysed the dynamic relationship between FDI and economic growth and domestic investment in Korea for the period of 195-1999 using vector auto regression model. They found that there some positive effects of FDI on economic growth but insignificant. However, their findings show that domestic investments negatively affected by FDI shock, and FDI does not crowd out domestic investment in Korea.In a recent survey of the literature, Hanson (2001) argues that evidence that FDI generates positive spillovers for host countries is weak. In a review of micro data on spillovers from foreign-owned to domestically owned firms, Gorg and Greenwood (2002) come to an end that the effects are mostly negative.Lipsey (2002) takes a more favorable view from reviewing the micro literature and argues that there is evidence of positive effects. Surveying the macro empirical research led Lipsey to conclude, however, that there is no consistent relation between the size of inward FDI stocks or flows relative to GDP and growth. He further argues that there is need for more consideration of the different batch that obstruct or promote spillovers.This study revisits the FDI and economic growth relationship by examining the role FDI inflows play in promoting growth in the main economic sectors, namely Agricultural, manufacturing, and services. Often-mentioned benefits, such as transfers of technology and management know-how, access of new processes, and employee training tend to relate to the manufacturing sector rather than the gardening or mining sectors.For example, the a priori work of Findlay (1978) and Wang and Bloomstrom (1992) that models the importance of F DI as a conduit for transferring technology, relates to the foreign investment inflows to manufacturing or service. He warned that in the absence of linkages, foreign investments could have limited effect in spurring growth in an economy.About the consequences in potential linkages effects differences in manufacturing and agriculture, Hirschman (1958110) wrote, the absence of direct linkage effects of primary production lends these views (enclaves) a plausibility that they do no have in the case of foreign investment in manufacturing. More recently, the theoretical work on linkages, by Rodiguez-Clare (1996), shows that multinationals intensive use of intermediate goods enhances production efficiency in host economies. In this framework, increased demand for inputs leads to a positive externality to other producers owing to an increase in variety. Greater varieties of inputs, however, seem to be more relevant to the manufacturing than to the unsophisticated sector.In addition, FDIs potential to create linkages to domestic firms, as Albert Hirschman (1958) described in his seminal book on economic development, might also vary across sectors. Hirschman (1958109) emphasized that not all sectors have the same potential to absorb foreign technology or to create linkages with the rest of the economy. He noted, for example, linkages are weak in agriculture and mining. However, seem to be more relevant to the manufacturing than to the agricultural sector.Markusen and Venables (1999) analyze the effect of foreign firms on the development of domestic firms in the industrial sector. In their model, foreign companies compete with domestic producers while creating additional demand for domestically produced intermediate goods through linkages with local suppliers. This can lead to domestic firms entering into the intermediate goods sector, which can result in lower costs that, reflected in lower net prices that increase demand, can benefit domestic firms producing final g oods.Proposed Research Work debate of ProblemToday, India stands as one of the fastest emerging economies in the world. The country has a land of 3,287,240 Sq Km with 1,188,859,000 populations. India enjoys a per capita income of US $757 ( universe of discourse Bank, 2009) as compared to US $ 318 in the pre liberalisation era. This study explores the role of FDI in this remarkable growth of India as well as the growth of every sector of the Indian economy.FDI has been seen one of the big resources for industrial development in India over the years. FDI stock increased to US $ 34.577 billions in 2009 from US $ 236.690 millions in 1990 (WIR, 2009) and has gained the name of The Asian Tiger. It is interesting to explore the impact of FDI on the rapid growth of Indian economy.Despite the natural resources availability in the country, economic policies and political environment also influence the inflow of foreign investments in the countries. The theoretical belief of impact of FDI is that FDI does not only bring capital but also it brings technology, knowledge and due to the spill over effect development of process remains for the long run. FDI works as the catalyst for the economic growth of a country, especially for the developing countries. FDI is not only a wizard factor determining the economic growth, rather foreign trade, domestic investment, employment level, government consumption are also major factors affecting growth. On the other hand, stock of human capital is factors determining the level of FDI inflow besides the resources accessible in the host countries. How the growth is affected by these versatiles? Does high level of FDI increase the higher level of economic growth? What would be the interaction between FDI and Trade, human capital and domestic investment? The study examines the effect of this variable in economic growth.Purpose of this studyAt a theoretical level, FDI brings both capital and technology which makes the local firms more co mpetitive and encourages the economic development in the faster way.The spill over effect of foreign companies will have a long-term effect in the host countries. In the practical level, this study explores the role of FDI in economic growth in India. This study explores, whether FDI plays a role in economic growth or not? Another precedent for the study is to compare the rate of growth of the key sectors of the Indian economy.India is able to attract a significant amount of FDI among Asian countries. This study verifies the theoretical model of endogenous growth theory of economic growth by using the macro economic figures of India. The present study examines the empirical estimate of the impact of FDI in difference of growth rates of Agricultural, Manufacturing and Service sectors of India as well as the growth of the economy as a whole over the period of 2000-2010.Scope of the StudyForeign Direct Investment has emerged as a major macro economic indicator of the growth of an ec onomy. In recent years, the Indian Economy has opened up to foreign flows at a tremendous rate. These foreign inflows have contributed to the overall development of the economy in areas like technology, innovations and human capital formation but are being hindered by high rates of inflation, low yields, wishing of infrastructure, skilled labour as well as low per capita GDP in various sectors.The study is aimed at analyzing the impact of FDI on the growth in various sectors considering the control factors. The research will also provide insights into the lop-sided flow of FDI in some sectors as compared to others. The impact of flow of FDI on the growth of Indian economy will also be estimated over the period of 10 years from 2000-2010. The study tries to explore the question whether high level of FDI cause higher level of economic growth.Research methodological analysisThis section describes the research methodology of the study which explains the conceptual framework, research d esign, data collection method and data analysis methods of the study.The main objective of the study is to compare the difference in growth rates among the Agricultural, Manufacturing and Service Sectors of the Indian Economy over the period of 2000 to 2010. India received a huge amount of FDI and achieved high economic growth rate with gradual liberal trade policy regimes. This study analyzes the linkage between FDI and economic growth in India.Conceptual Frame workBasically, the conceptual frame work of the study is derived from the works of Borensztein et al. (1998), Carkovic and Levine (2002), and Alfaro et al. (2003). They have shown the impact of FDI on economic growth in the following linkage.Source Adapted from How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?References and further reading may be available for this article. To view references and further reading you must purchase this article.E. Borensztein, J. De Gregorio and J-W. LeeAccording to their argument, Fo reign Direct Investment accelerates capital accumulation in host country by increasing count investment and lowering the cost of innovation and indirectly by crowding in domestic investment and scarce resources of the economy and productivity is enhanced by technology transfer but it is constrained by human capital in the host economy. They argue that FDI develops stock of human capital. There should be a linkage between domestic investment and human capital to achieve the higher productivity.Research Methodology and ModelThe present study is focused on the compare the difference in growth rates among the Agricultural, Manufacturing and Service Sectors of the Indian Economy over the period of 2000 to 2010. Only secondary data are used for the analysis of the research objectives. The uneven inflow of foreign capital and growth of certain sectors in the economy in India has attracted the research interest on it.This study employs the endogenous growth theory as genuine by Balasubram anyam, Salisu and Sapsford, 1996 and Borensztein, Gragorio and Lee 1998. This model assumes that FDI contributes to economic growth directly through new technologies and other inputs as well as indirectly through improving human capital, infrastructure and institutions and countrys level of productivity depends on FDI, trade and domestic investment. The impact of overall FDI inflows on economic growth can be based on the following comparabilityGrowth= 0 + 1 Initial GDP + 2 Controls + 3 FDI + vi here(predicate) Growth is the dependent Variable which equals per capita GDP, FDI and the control factors.For most of the variables in the regression, the determine represent the average of the period for which sector FDI is available. The variables are determined as followsOutput levels and growth Output level and growth data reflect the growth of real per capita GDP (in constant 1995 US$). Source humanity Bank knowledge Indicators (2001).Foreign Direct Investment FDI inflows are by and large defined as the measure of the net inflows of investment needed to tackle a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. FDI by sector as a % of GDP was used in the regression analysis. Sources For OECD countries, the outside(a) Direct Investment Statistics Year Book (2001) FDI by sector for other countries in the sample was calculated using UNCTADs World Investment Directory (7-volume series 1992-2000).Government Spending Comprises general government final consumption expenditure as a percentage of GDP. Source World Bank Development Indicators (2001).Inflation Percentage changes in the GDP deflator. Source World Bank Development Indicators (2001).Institutional choice (INSTQUAL) Institutional Quality is measured as the average of the 12 sub-indices of Political Risk as measured by the International untaught Risk Guide Government Stability, Socio Economic Conditions, Investment Pro file, Internal Conflict, External Conflict, Corruption, Military in Politics, theology in Politics, Law and Order, Ethnic Tensions, Democratic Accountability, and Bureaucracy Quality. Source International Country Risk Guide (ICRG).Inflation Percentage changes in the GDP deflator. Source World Bank Development Indicators (2001).Openness Trade Openness is defined as the average of exports and imports as a percentage of GDP. Source World Bank Development Indicators (2001).Private credit (PRCREDBANK) The value of credit by financial intermediaries to the private sector divided by GDP, this variable excludes credits issued by central and development banks and credit to the public sector as well as cross claims of one group of intermediaries on another. Source Levine et al. (2000).Schooling Average years of secondary schooling of the total population. Source Barro and Lee (1996) and World Bank Development Indicators (2001).The same equation can be used to determine the economic growth in each of the sectors of the Indian economy.Based on the results obtained, relevant conclusions can be drawn about the growth rates in the Agricultural, Manufacturing and Service Sectors of the Economy and the difference between them. Analysis of the FDI over the period of 10 years can also be derived by employing the equation to each year.The stock of efficient human capital is required to absorb the technologies brought by FDI and it determines whether the potential spillover effect is realized. The host country requires sufficient number of human capital to utilize the technologies brought by FDI, meaning that higher the level of human capital in the host country, higher the effect of FDI in economic growth of the host country. The study assumes a positive relationship between FDI and GDP growth rate as well as a positive interaction between FDI and human capital in accelerating the economic growth. The issue relating to the interaction between FDI and domestic investment it is as sumed that there is positive interaction between FDI and domestic investment because FDI has is considered as an important metier for transferring capital, technologies and host countries that encourages the domestic investment level.This study uses the time series data for the period of 2000-2010 for the analysis of the objectives and uses the multivariate regression analysis (OLS) for the analysis of data. entropy Collection Method and SourcesThe research is based on Secondary sources of data Collection.Detailed information on FDI by sector for India is available in OECDs International Direct Investment Statistics Yearbook (2009). The OECD data can be complemented with information obtained from the World Investment Report seven volume series by UNCTAD, each volume of which contains FDI information for countries from different regions (e.g., Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, etc.).The per capita growth rate of output is measured as the growth of real per capita GDP in constant dollars using data from the World Banks World Development Indicators (WDI) (2009). Inflation, measured as the percentage of change in the GDP deflator and used as a proxy for macroeconomic stability, is taken from WDI (2009) as well. In order to capture institutional quality and stability, data from the International Country Risk Guide (ICRG), a m

Different Views About Test Anxiety Psychology Essay

Different Views Ab tell apart on prove anguish psychological science EssayWalter (2002) describes stress as an intentional capacity to explore the aro expend direct, information, superpower and tasks achievement. correspond to Cronbach, (1980) a ladder is an organized method for ponder against the behavior of two or much peck.According to (Cronbach, 1980) A trial run is an organized method for weigh against the behavior of two or more batch.There be varieties of probes which include the following-1. Aptitude tastes2. interrogatorys of developed abilities3. motion adjudicates4. Mental ability gosAnd practic eachy another(prenominal)wise benign of judges atomic number 18 fain and organized to evaluate the school-age childs abilities and faculty member executeance. Aptitude trials atomic number 18 organized in order to look for the talent and passion of the students in the required field. Tests atomic number 18 also conducted for the attainments to check that had been taught, on the other hand achievement rivulets are required to ,,,,,,,.Definition of solicitudeCohen, (1981) cited anguish as a basic human passion that was acknowledged even before 5000 eld ago ,whereas The British poet W. H. Auden c both in alled the 20th the age of fretting.Crooks and Stein (1988) say that disquiet is described as receiveings of give care, hesitation, nervousness and alarm that go along with the starting signal of the sensitive nervous system that arouses physical changes like business line pressure, ready heart beating, perspiration, cramps etc.Test fretfulnessThese days students are veneering number of problems and one of the common problems faced by students is sees that cause disturbance. When students are afraid and feel that they go out not be able to make proper in their exams that is running play perplexity.Test trouble is a study problem of students at lowgraduate level. Students frequently undergo with foreboding that triumph up students learnedness and test taking abilities to the level that students academician carrying out is put oned badly. Students aptitude get guard of prepared efficiently and competent abundant to wage test that cognitive disquiet engages students in apprehension provoking thoughts such as fear of failure, or wish to do extraordinarily good, they perform abject.Every student need to score good in their exams.students works hard and puts in their efforts to attain their goal.few of students gets reward in terms of good academic execution and results for their efforts they subscribe done but other students don t care round it.hence teachers and counselors making bang-up efforts to help out their students to improve their grades and CGPAs.(Roberts Saxe, 1982) says that misgiving influence people in unalike tracks and situations. In educational environments, concern might put one crosswise evidential forbidly charged relate on cog nitive subject, (Tremblay, Gardner, Heipel, 2000) presentation and achievement, (Lalonde Gardner, 1993) knowledge.Tests plays significant part in our everyday life. An important fact that tests collect be to raise loyal dread and test fear has turned out to be a common modern problem (Spielberger Vagg, 1995 Sarason, 1959)Aderson, (2002) says Test trouble is describes as a kind of concern of death penalty, a sensation that student provoke for the coming test, in which execution of instrument is essential to the person.Definition of test anguishAccording to Zeidner, (1998) the set of physiologic, phenomenological and behavioral retorts which go with related assertable negative failure or results on a test or alike evaluative circumstances is called dread.Sarason, (1988) stated that Anxiety is a infixed emotion which has fear and uncertainty that usually happens when a person feels whatsoever threat that will hurt his ego or egotism esteem. amaze of phenomenologica l, physiological, and behavioral responses that accompany concern about possible negative consequences or failure on an exam or similar evaluative situation(Zeidner, 1998, p.17).Goonan (2003) stated test trouble astest concern differs from oecumenical feelings of concern ,it is a special form of psychological disorder that involves extensive amounts of fear, chafe and fear of negative evaluation during or in anticipation of action or evaluative situations(p.4).It has been defined by many authors, like Dusek (1980) be test anxiety asAn unpleasant feeling or frantic state that has physiological and behavioral concomitants and that is aimd in formal exam or other evaluative situations.(p.88).Manifestations of anxiety(Cohen, 1980), has apt(p) us quadruple manifestations of anxiety, given as underSomatic in physical responses2 emotional in emotions3 cognitive in thoughts4 move in actionsIn cognitive manifestations, it might fluctuate from little worry to fear. Bruta l assault could take passion of awaiting disaster, obsession, faces difficulty in sleeping, deficiency of forethought and taking decisions,In motor manifestation, behaviors are frequently misinformd, discerning students visualizes arbitrary actions that vary from trembling to shaking of the whole skeleton. Complete florilegium of behaviors like agitation, squirming, fits, nail biting, lip biting, and nervousness could be seen.In embodied changes,changes might come like trivial brea function, dry mouth, cold body, urination, heartbeat, blood pressure. cramps.etc(Antonovsky, 1980).say that Affective domain is the prominent anxiety manifestation. In this situation, students feel persistently nervous and anxious about threats, regardless of the fact thats things are red ink fine. Psychomotor and academic mistakes, mental achievement, that can divert attention and remembrance, and all this occurs due(p) to anxiety which has horrible clashs. However, it is stated by some psycho logists swan that anxiety provide motivational purposeFacilitating and drain effects of test anxiety.Meichenbaum Butler(1980) commented about the difficulty and complications of test anxiety and how it influence the students death penaltyWe speak out test anxiety is more than physiological arousal, more than negative egotism preoccupation, more than poor study habits, and more than a deficit in stress-related coping learnings. In fact, we think it is more than a combination of these elements (p.188).According to Hill Wigfeild (1984) say for many studies flip been conducted on the consequences created by test anxiety on students performance. In summation, the affiliation between performance and anxiety is very significant and composite.Scovel, (1978) have explained two types of anxiety Facilitating anxiety debilitate anxietyScovel (1978) further defines these two types of anxiety and says that facilitating anxiety arouses students to confidently trade the problems and t roubles, and to welcome the challenges that come forth. Whereas debilitating anxiety seems to damage students learning results and weakens the required confidence.consquently students affected by debilitating anxiety seems to think inactively and shun failure. Students have Facilitating effects and debilitating effects due to test anxiety describes above.Tryon,(1980) says that Debilitating impact of test anxiety on learning in diverse cases seems to have spoiled the performance in tests due to test anxiety. Students come across with these debilitating impacts in various forms which damages the students performance in assorted ways, by worry, hesitation, disbelief and by dropping contributionModels of Test AnxietyThere are two posers of test anxiety that increases the spectrum of test anxiety. Two models were developed to report the causes of test anxiety.The noise modelThe acquirement deficit model.The snag ModelIn interference model (Wine 1980 Sarason 1986) says that students having heights levels of test anxiety hinder the capacity to recollect the learned information.Interference model covers the Cognitive feature of test anxiety. Benjamin, (1981) described that students have definite ability of processing information and test anxiety may hinder students concentration to use their energy on the retrival of material that they have learned in the testing situations.When the test anxiety will clasp to its peak, it will absorb the students processing ability, which will take up the ability that is needed for the tasks. When students dont have the ability of cognitive processing they needed on the spot, it means that the ability has been taken up by the anxiety that interferes learning.Sarson (1984) says that A cognitive interference may be the key factor in lowering the performance of graduate(prenominal)ly test anxious people (p.931).Tobias (1980), says that as students are influenced by cognitive test anxiety, which results in to distract th eir attention and requires more ability to utilize educational skills. Therefore such kinds of reasons are ascribed to students feeling anxious and it might reduce students performance. schooling is not a problem rather interference with recovery. Wine (1980) says that students having high test anxiety among cognitive ability among giving attention to the task and the attention is given to the cognitions that are not relevant with the task.Both of these factors hinder the capacity to call back and confined the capacity to employ in organized thinking . These points might give description why students by high test anxiety can normally do better on objective/MCQ than on subjective exams where the earlier needs to yield less.Benjamin et, al., (1981) and Tobias (1985) experienced that receptive and intelligent students might have done their preparation, yet they will watch high test anxiety, that confine the thinking process, hinder recalling materials and inhibit to use the techniq ues to perform healthy on test.The Skills deficit ModelHill Wigfields (1984) skill deficit model does not have any direct human relationship with test anxiety at first look. Though it tells what activate and produces test anxiety. It permits to know the connection of skill deficit model of test anxiety and poor academic performance. Rather believing that ability to recover data is affected due to interference model, skill deficit model have different point of hear.indeed, this gives us the view that students poor academic performance is ascribed with the poor test preparation in learning skills or due to want of test taking abilities.Hill Wigfield (1984) proposed that the skill deficit model offer reasonable explanation on unforeseen performance of students .the skill deficit model engages two kinds of deficits that endanger the performance of the students, one of them is Learning ability and the second one is Lack of test taking ability. poor people results in academics perfo rmance is due to Unsatisfactory preparation before tests came, addition acquisition problems,problems in call up and memorizing or retrieving data at sign place. Whereas lack of ability to attempt the test also put in high test anxious students to perform poor ,although students are informed of their inability of taking test.The skill deficit model says that students with high test anxiety faces problems in learning and arranging learning materials and that gives poor results in performance. (Tobias 1985 Naveh -Benjamin, McKeachie and Lin 1987 Birenbaum and Pinku 1997).In spite of, giving different explanations, the skill deficit and interference models may be balancing for each other(Tobias 1985 Birenbaum and Pinku 1997 ).they have suggested different kind of students in addition with different levels of test performance.Students having good learning and organizing abilities, unitedly with low test anxiety ought to do good as they have learned the tests and they do n ot come across with the difficulty to recall. Whereas other students have the capacity and they learn the test but could not recall in evaluative situations and settings, and when tasks requires more cognitive capacity than they have. yet other fall short to learn and organize materials thats why they perform poor whether they are in test situation and test design.Most of the rese severeers who hold this model (e.g. Wittmaier, 1972 Desiderato Kokinen, 1969 Culler Holahan, 1980) say those students who show poor academic performance are because of their bad study habits and lack of interest in preparing for their exams. These kinds of students are intended enough of their study behavior thats why they dont expect good results. These kinds of attitudes dramatize anxiety which results in poor academic performance. When students see their academic skills are in enough, they feel anxious and show poor performance.Levels of Test AnxietySwanosn and Howell (1996) define the three levels of test anxiety given as underLow levels test anxietyModerate test anxiety richly test anxietySpielberger and Sarason,( 1989) further states about the high level test anxiety that helps in the growth the students with low inspiration, lack academic abilities, lacking use of different techniques for taking test, hopelessness, cheating, carelessness, and thinking negative about himself and lack of attention. It is said students with both high and low levels of test anxiety show good academic performance whereas students with moderate anxiety level perform well.Spielberger and Sarason,( 1989) view and identified three levels of test anxiety .John and Kenneth (1982) says ,students with high level test anxiety badly get in the way with all kinds of performances,and normally students with moderate and low level anxiety helps in meliorate performance.Components of Test Anxiety(Sarson sarson, 1990) has stated three main componentsCognitiveAffectiveBehavioralCognitive componentIn cognitiv e view, students having test anxiety due to absence of self confidence.they are surrounded by negative feelings, and feeling incapable of their educational abilityand academic skills.(Zeidner, 1998) adds and says, students mostly exaggerate the possible negative results and undergo self-reliant in testing situations. if students want to have good results they should avoid negative thinking.Affective componentIn affective view, (Zeidner, 1998) Test anxiety raise some physiological reactions like, flying heart beating, nausea, urination and raises perspiration, stretching of muscles, feeling thirsty, shivering and cold hands. With physiological reactions, emotions like failure threat, worry, might be there. When students are fail to be intimate their emotions, they feel pressure, tension, fear, thus create more hard and tricky for students to focus.The bodily signs that students feel when they are going through anxiety are connect with the supposed responses to fear and tension. Im portant physical functions like heart beating, breathing, or rapidity of other body functions, saliva secretions, flow of blood. Students undergo different kind of physical feelings together with nausea, vomiting, cramps in body, feeling dizzy, shivering, and stiffness of joints. behavioral componentBehaviorally test anxious students states anxiety through reluctance and futile learning and test taking ability. Zeidner (1998) says that might test anxious students take more measure and problem in assessing information or feel tired during test because of weak students or they are weak in health.State and Trait AnxietySpielberger(1972-1983),gave the concept of state and singularity anxiety .He described state anxiety asTransitory emotional state or condition of the human organism that is characterized by subjective, consciously comprehend feelings of tension and apprehension, and heightened autonomic nervous system activity.Spielberger further states about peculiarity anxiety tha tTrait anxiety denotes relatively steadfast unmarried differences in anxiety proneness and refers to a general tendency to respond with anxiety to perceived threats in the environment.(48)School psychologists have been using state and trait anxiety in 21st century which was introduced by Spielberger in 1972.State anxiety means when horrible feelings and emotions of fear are aroused in danger, whether mentally or bodily. State anxiety is assumes a cognitive insight and supposition of danger, so as to students should know at a stage that fact situation is dangerous. Normally youngsters undergo less anxiety once they are out of hectic occasion is gone. On the other hand, trait anxiety is characteristic of a personality, an ability to encounter state anxiety when came across any difficult situation and danger. but this is different and varies from person to person. Eysenck and Eysenck (1991) describes that high level trait anxiety is strongly associated to neuroticismTerry (1998) te lls about the numerous symptoms that shows students test anxiety. following is the symptoms of test anxiety. stirred up reactions such as crying, sensitive hair trigger responses, irritability, excess giggling, sudden changes of expression and general unrest.Bodily manifestation like stomach aches, headache, urination, fatigue, abundant sweating.Dangerous behaviors, like, carelessness, and self defamation.Anxious symptom, such as edgy marks, biting nail, too much blinking, hair chew, finger sucking, swinging action.Misconduct and violence, like breaking pencils, shows anger, slangs manner of speaking is used, fighting, hounding and destructiveness.Bad exertion routine, for example, day-dreaming, incompetence, dishonesty and absence of attention.Looking for attention boyish behaviors, looking for appraisal and positive remarks, demands for attention, construction of weird stories, nonstop distinctiveness and asking about things around, stick to the teacher, performing.Causes of t est anxietyOn the self-defeating consequences of subjective cognitions (Ellsworth Smith, 1988 Lazarus, 1991) suggest that poorer self-beliefs are a major cause of test anxiety.Perceive examinations as more dangerous or threatening and experience more intense levels of state anxiety when taking tests (Spielberger Vagg, 1995, p.6).D Arcylyness, (2004) adumbrate the following as the causes of test anxietya. Lack of preparation by1 Cramming the night before the test2 Poor while management3 Failure to organize test information4 Poor study habitsb. bother about the following1. Past performance on examination2. How friends and other students are doing3. The negative consequences of failure.The effects of anxiety on different situationsIn different ways the anxiety influences on different kind of human beings. According to Roberts Saxe, (1982) anxiety may affect cognitive functioning badly in any kind of academic setting. Lalonde Gardner, (1993) includes that learning might be affect ed by anxiety where as Tremblay, Gardner, Heipel, (2000) state that anxiety may affect on performance and success.During particular proposition situation when the manners of apprehension, tension and dread are perceived consciously, it is called oecumenic state anxiety which is also called physiological arousal (Endler Kocovski, 2001). Wine (1980) says that the effects anxietyon performance is prominent because of having unbearable impacts on cognitive process.Tremblay, (1998) argues that mostly people are affected through cognitive biases with General trait anxiety which is a firm tendency towards anxiety.Class and test anxiety along with statistics anxiety come into the vast umbrella of Trait anxiety in the view point of (Walsh Ugumba-Agwunobi, 2002).2.1 Cognitive StyleThinking and perceiving, problem solving and remembering , all these types of actions are considered under the umbrella of cognitive direction as has been described by McKay, Fischler Dunn, (2003) as are consi dered to be trait-like, relatively stable characteristics of individuals, whereas learning strategies are more state-drivenCassidy (2004) states that there are many cognitive style typologies from which we give preference to Ridings Cognitive Style Analysis Riding,2001 because of more vital implications.According to Sadler Riding, (1999) construct of cognitive is more important whether learning style has less importance. The real mode of information processing, cognitive style and their mutual relationship is significant and strengthened to a large extent.2.2 Cognitive Processing EfficiencyThe cognitive processing parameters (Demetriou Kazi, 2001 Demetriou et al., 1993) that have been included in our model area- Control of processing (to indicate the relevant and inapplicable information)b- Speed of processing (speed in the given instruction might be accurately executed),c- Working memory span (to hold and integrating different information till the solution of a problem)d- Visual attention (based on the empirically validated assumption that when a person is performing a cognitive task while watching something).According to Baddeley, (1992) all these tasks are measured in shortest possible time span while the running(a) memory span test focuses on the visuospatial sketch pad sub-component and this all is done comfortably.2.3 wound up ProcessingEmotional processing consists of two typesEmotional ArousalThe capability of human being to feel and experience specific emotional circumstances,Emotion RegulationThe process of having perception and control of individual over his emotions.In the view point of Cassady (2004), anxiety is the major thing in the term of behavior which indicates the arousal of various kind of emotions and it has strong relation with academic performance.Also, it is related with performance in computer intercede learning procedures (Chang, 2005 Smith Caputi, 2007).Users trait anxiety could be measured (Spielberger, 1983), and their prac tical application specific anxiety, which in the case of e-learning is named as Cognitive Test Anxiety (Cassady Johnson, 2002)In the term of construct of emotional regulation used by us also comes into the concepts of Emotional Control (emotional management, self-awareness, self-motivation) (Goleman, 1995 Salovey Mayer, 1990), and Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1994), Emotional Expression and Emotional experience (Halberstadt, 2005).Lekkas et al, (2007) argues that we can evaluate the affectional responses of enhancing and change magnitude the learning abilities through measuring the levels of Anxiety with emotional regulation.Factors of Test AnxietyAccording to competitive anxiety research (Gould et al., 1984 Burton, 1988). Cognitive (worry) anxiety factor has strong imprints on the achievement of the student then the somatic (emotionality) component.Test anxiety has two main components described by Liebert and Morris (1967) that is worry and emotionality. Worry is conceived as cognit ive importance related to tests and test performance. These concerns revolve in the region of negative cognitions, like fixation with the test results and performance. Strong negative penalties like failure, underachievement and evaluation of students skills to others.Academic performancePhillips and Endler, (1982) say that Academic performance usually depends on students how they make their connections with the academic environment. It is believed that students who are intelligent will be relaxed and less threat full .But these students do have fear of examination.Okebukola and Jegede, (1989) its teachers responsibility to prepare their students to show good academic results as well as to enable them to respond to different academic needs that has impact on academic performance.Relationship between anxiety and academic performanceRoberts Saxe, (1982) say that Anxiety influences people in different ways and situations. In educational environments, anxiety might have significant neg ative impact on cognitive performance, (Tremblay, Gardner, Heipel, 2000) presentation and achievement, (Lalonde Gardner, 1993) knowledge.Endler Kocovski, (2001) stated that Common state anxiety is a physical stimulation and a deliberately supposed way of hesitation, fear, and stress through a particular moment. (Wine, 1980) describes that, this influence the performance as it has strong effects on cognitive course.Tremblay, (1998) Cognitive biases influence people with common trait anxiety, a steady tendency towards anxiety. Than it have an effect on people who are not anxious.According to Scovel (1978) there is a positive connection between performance and test anxiety. Test anxiety is in fact utile and facilitating as students remained alarmed and conscious. McDonald (2001) describes more connection between levels of performance and test anxiety that will show the arch like a reversed U figure, showing to the best anxiety point. It could be said that when anxiety reaches to th e best quantity, it could produce constructive results cognize to us as facilitating test anxiety. This type and amount of anxiety is useful for students to give attention to their work, and feel himself completely challenged. In contrast, over and weeny test anxiety will produce tension, constant worry, anxiety and strain or students reluctance, will result in poor performance.Test Anxiety in relation to sexual activity (sex)Research on students educational performance has received significant concentration. Number of researches had been done in the area on the level of anxiety on test anxiety between young-bearing(prenominal) and male students academic performance. Walsh, Engbreton and O Brien (1988) performed two researches at the same time to identify whether there is relationship between test anxiety and academic performance as it influences the gender. Researcher collected the data and the Sample were consists of (57 females 46 males,) and total 103 undergraduate students for first research and (52 females 42 males) and total 94 undergraduate students for the second research. Test anxiety findings were correlated with the students Grade post Averages (GPAs).When the data was analysis, there was negative correlation present between test anxiety and academic performance. Thus negative relationship was establish which was more for females and less for males.Daniels and Hewitt (1987), finds if there is correlation between academic performance and test anxiety with gender view. The sample was composed of data (21 males 27 females) and got their score of test anxiety.When data was examined, it was found that females had high test anxiety as compared with males however they didnt find any major variation of gender in respect of the negative correlation between academic performance and test means,that test anxiety has unpleasant effects on academic performance but it didn show any major affect of one gender more than the other. The findings h ave shown that females undergo high test anxiety as compare to males when measure their test anxiety ,like wise Sarason (1987),Spielberger(1980) and taylor (1998) have found that females have scored high mean score on test anxiety when compared with males.